怎麼給外國人解釋「呢」這個字呢?

剛剛在跟一小老外交流各自的語言,突然她提出了這個問題,把我也給難住了,有知友可以解答一下嗎?小生在此謝過了!


雖然不知道你的外國友人是否講英語,但是如果換成我用英語解釋的話大概是這樣(不保證準確性):

When 呢 is pronunced as ne in Mandarin, its an oral mode of expression in Chinese to express mostly emotions, similar to whats called 『tone or words like ah, uhuh, hm, meh in English. It serves as a modifier often placed at the end of sentences to modify the tone of the sentence or after another character to form a phrase that expresses exclamation or other emotion (like, e.g. 啊 as in 『天啊』 meaning 『oh my god, where 『天 means Heaven). So 呢 could be used to emphasize with exclamation, as in 真的呢!

It can also be used to soften the tone of a question, e.g compare 幹嘛? with 幹嘛呢?in certain scenarios, though in practices how soft the tone is would depend on how the utterer actually says it or mean it in a particular context.

Unlike 啊 in Mandarin or 哈 in Cantonese, this usage of 呢 cannot be used by itself alone to form a phrasal sentence. That is to say, while there is 啊!or 啊?, there is no 呢!or 呢?

Also notice that this usage of 呢 is mostly, if not only, in Mandarin. Other Chineses, such as Cantonese or Teochew/Southern Min, do not use this character in this way or in the same way. (For example, in Teochew, one can argue that 呢 is used as in 做呢?(meaning: What (do you want)? in response to name calling), but its simply raising a question; the tone of the question is not set or modified by 呢.)

When 呢 is pronunced as ní, its a verb or noun meaning mumble, or mumbling, often in the phrase 呢喃 (ní nán).

When pronunced as ní, 呢 may also be used to translate the sound of pronunciation in other languages, such as those in Chinese Buddhist canon.


漢語的語法包括語序和情態詞兩部分。呢是語法情態詞,在語氣詞這個明細類。語氣詞是用在句末的,呢的用法原型是用在有疑問詞「什麼/哪/怎麼/誰……」的疑問句的句末的(也可不用),用來輔助疑問語氣的。在回答這些有疑問詞的疑問句時,也可順著這種語氣來在答句句末也用呢(也可不用)。這一問一答里問句有時不出現而只出現答句,這時看起來像是呢用在單獨的陳述句但其實性質還是默認了有個隱性的出現了呢的問句。呢和嗎的區別是,嗎是由陳述句變來的一般疑問句(有時出現疑問詞是有從句嵌套)。


發現有chinese grammar wiki這個神奇的網站,應該蠻適合英文使用者自學或教學中文的。

https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/呢?

resources.allsetlearning.com


不光是」呢「,還有 啊 呀 吧 啦 娜 就是 」啊「,因為前邊聲母就有音變

未結束的狀態

讓學習者感受這種語境,學習就進入一個狀態


啊a、哦e、嗯en,作為語氣詞,是一回事,不同面部表情(誇張、有興趣、平靜)下的變體。呢ne,可以看成是哦e、嗯en的進一步變體——取消音前停頓,直接附著在詞、句後面。也許可以跟老外這麼講:

比如:

你要什麼?啊/嗯/哦?→ 你要什麼呢?

我在寫作業。啊/嗯/哦。→ 我在寫作業呢。(/!)

1、「呢」的作用:強調。強調剛才說的那句話的意思。問句就強調整個問題,陳述句就強調說明的全內容,感嘆句就強調錶示心情的語氣(開心、不開心、煩,等)。

2、為什麼強調:擔心你沒聽真切。(中國人重感情,擔心是表達情感的一種辦法,成習了)

3、附帶語體色彩:隨便,非正式。對親近的人用,或者為了拉近關係用,或者為了表達故意不敬。


呢:厲害,張狂

示例:好小子,你挺呢啊


例1:你幹嘛呢?我撒尿呢。用在句尾以詢問或陳述當前狀態。不能以是否回答,不能以ok不ok回答。

變1:我吃飽了,你呢?變2:是呢,怎麼還不回家?

例2:-去把遙控過來。-好呢哪。無意義音節,常見於南方人賣萌。常見的還有「好了啦」

例3:呢子大衣。一種較厚較密的毛織品。

辨析:

你幹嘛啊(呀)?

你幹嘛呢?

新聞聯播幾點結束啊(哇,哪,呀)?

新聞聯波幾點結束呢?


想表示一種緩和(可愛、溫柔、無奈等)的情緒的時候,就可以加呢,無論是否問句。

有些反問句、或者有人要搞事情,會加「呢」進行強調,個人認為這個是屬於陰陽怪氣,不應該算語法。


約=韓語的時候思密達?


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